Newcastle Laboratories

Alpha1-antitrypsin, serum

Clinical Background:

A1AT is an abundant serum protease inhibitor. The release of proteolytic enzymes from plasma onto organ surfaces and into tissue spaces results in tissue damage unless inhibitors are present. Conge...

A1AT is an abundant serum protease inhibitor. The release of proteolytic enzymes from plasma onto organ surfaces and into tissue spaces results in tissue damage unless inhibitors are present. Congenital deficiency of A1AT is associated with the development of emphysema at an unusually early age and with increased incidence of neonatal hepatitis, usually progressing to cirrhosis.

Alpha-1-antitrypsin inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, thrombin, collagenase and elastase, and as such prevents breakdown of normal proteins by these enzymes. There are at least 50 genetic variants of α1-antitrypsin of which at least 7 are associated with low functional plasma α1-antitrypsin concentration. Hereditary α1-antitrypsin deficiency presents clinically with pulmonary disease or hepatic cirrhosis, and a low α1-antitrypsin concentration should be confirmed with phenotype analysis. As an acute phase protein, levels may be raised in various inflammatory conditions, infection, neoplasia, systemic lupus erythromatosis, pregnancy, and in patients taking oral contraceptives. Serial monitoring of Rheumatoid Factor is not recommended as there is not a useful correlation with disease activity.

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Test Details

  • Discipline:

    Biochemistry

    Biochemistry

  • Specimen Container Adult:

    Serum-SST

    Serum-SST

  • Specimen Container Paediatric:

    Serum-Plain tube

    Serum-Plain tube

  • Minimum Volume Adult:

    1 mL blood

    1 mL blood

  • Minimum Volume Paediatric:

    0.5 mL blood

    0.5 mL blood

  • Sample Stability:

    Unseparated sample: 11 days

    Separated samples:
    at +15° to +25°C 3 days
    at +2° to +8°C 7 days
    at -20°C 3 months

    Unseparated sample: 11 days

    Separated samples:
    at +15° to +25°C 3 days
    at +2° to +8°C 7 days
    at -20°C 3 months

  • Reference Ranges:

    - Newborn: Slightly higher than adult
    - Paediatric: Fall to concentration 0.4 below adult level at 6 months.
                           Gradual rise to concentration 0.3 above adult level at 10 years. ...

    - Newborn: Slightly higher than adult
    - Paediatric: Fall to concentration 0.4 below adult level at 6 months.
                           Gradual rise to concentration 0.3 above adult level at 10 years.
                           Fall to adult level by 15 years.
    - Adult: 0.9 -2.0 g/L

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  • Other Info:

    Plasma- Lithium Heparin also acceptable

    Plasma- Lithium Heparin also acceptable

  • Routine Contact Name:

    Duty Biochemist

  • Routine Telephone:

    Freeman: 0191 244 8889
    RVI: 0191 282 9719

    Freeman: 0191 244 8889
    RVI: 0191 282 9719

  • Routine Email:

    - For external users: TNU-Tr.duty.biochemist@nhs.net

    - For Trust users: DutyBiochemist@nuth.nhs.uk

Availability:

Available 24/7
Site of analysis: RVI

Turn Around:

Within 5 full access days

Send To:

Department of Blood Sciences

Level 3
Leazes Wing
Royal Victoria Infirmary
Queen Victoria Road
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 4LP

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